The constellation of the international powers has changed unmistakably in recent decades: China and India have at least caught up to the traditional powers USA and Great Britain, and are now demanding mandates in international organizations such as the UN and the WTO in accordance with their new position. In its year at CAS, the Research Group led by Bernhard Zangl will examine how old and new superpowers vie for seats in international councils and what role various negotiation strategies play in this contest. During an explosive volcanic eruption, numerous physical processes occur, ranging from the degasification of magma to the release of an ash and gas mixture into the atmosphere and its deposition on the surface of the Earth as tephra. During each process, the magma is exposed to many different reactive substances and conditions which produce these changes in form. In its year of work, the CAS Research Group led by Donald Dingwell will examine these three processes of the volcano system close to the Earth's surface, taking into account aspects such as geophysics, fluid mechanics, atmospheric chemistry, biochemistry and material sciences, as well as social science aspects.